The visual changes in scene with respect to time is called animation. This visual change in the scene is not associated only in the position of the object, but also in the shape, color, transparency, structure and texture. In early days animation is very tough to learn and time consuming. But now a days use of computer technology makes it’s easy to learn and more powerful. Lots of computer software available using which we can draw images and playing them with high speed in animation.
Generally computer animation subset of both animation technology and computer graphics. And it is achieved through a series of geometric transformations-scaling, translation, rotation or any mathematical technique-to produce a sequence of scenes. In addition, we can also create animation by any of the following:
Camera accessories: It includes camera focus, camera position with respect to object, camera distance from the object and orientation etc.
Lighting Condition: It involves the direction of the object and color of the light, the number of the lights and so on etc.
Now a days computer animation is widely used for producing motion pictures, cartoon movies, and video games in the entertainment industry. In addition, it is also widely used in education, training, industrial applications, advertising, visualization and many engineering applications etc.
In early days animation sequence was created by drawing different images in different frames and then it’s play in high speed. But in these days, it’s created with the help of a computer. We can create required frames as per requirements using computer easily and then it can be played with high speed.
There are four basics approach to design an animation sequence namely:
- storyboard layout
- object definitions
- key frame specifications
- generation of in-between frames
Along with the above basics, there are twelve main principles of animation which are given by the Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in 1981 in their book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. The main aim of the principles was to produce an illusion of characters accepting the basic laws of physics.
The principles are:
- Squash and stretch
- Follow through and overlapping actions
- Straight ahead action and pose-to-pose action
- Slow in and slow out (or ease in and ease out)
- Secondary actions
- Solid drawing
- Key frame systems
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